How where and whether someone was deported depended in part on ones race and nationality after the supreme courts decision in fong yue ting v united states 1893declared deportation to be a way to protect the nation rather than punish noncitizens most immigrants lost the ability to contest their expulsions hester details how the creation of two separate deportation policies during the exclusion era enabled chinese immigrants to petition for a writ of habeas corpus and fight their . In the late nineteenth century the us congress created two sets of deportation policies congress began building the first in 1882 when it passed the chinese exclusion act this deportation law applied specifically and exclusively to chinese laborers. Canada and the united states since 1892 the united states has deported a whopping fifty million immigrants the vast majority of deportations 95 percent occurred after 1970 but torrie hester turns our attention to the early formation of us deportation policy arguing that the fundamental logic and practices developed between 1882 and 1924 . Deportation the origins of us policy takes the international perspective back to the formative period of deportation policy in the united states to examine the international regime that facilitated us deportations this book examines the deportations of immigrants from the united states and the receiving of deported us citizens from abroad finding evidence of the latter proved more difficult than the former in part because the united states deported more people than other countries
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